Colon, the 45-year-old right-hander, has allowed 19 homers this season. He recorded his 2,500th career strikeout against Muncy in the first.
Colon (3-4) got tagged for eight runs and nine hits in 3 1/3 innings after tossing at least five innings in 10 of 11 starts. He was trying to break a tie with Hall of Famer Juan Marichal for most wins by a Dominican-born pitcher - they both have 243.
The Dodgers pounded out 16 hits in winning their second straight game.
Edward Paredes (1-0) got the win with a scoreless inning of relief.
Dodgers reliever Daniel Corcino pitched three innings for his first save, but stumbled with two outs in the ninth when he allowed two runs. Jurickson Profar had an RBI single and Delino DeShields, who walked, scored on a throwing error by Puig in right field.
Pederson's two-run homer in the second - his seventh in eight games - gave the Dodgers a 3-0 lead after Puig drove in their first run with a two-out RBI double.
Muncy hit his team-leading 13th homer - going deep in his fourth straight game - to make it 4-2 in the third. He made his first start of the season at second base.
The Dodgers batted around in the fourth, with Puig powering a two-run homer to get the scoring started. Chris Taylor added an RBI single and scored on an error by Profar at shortstop. Cody Bellinger had an RBI double and Yasmani Grandal hit a two-run single in extending their lead to 11-2.
Muncy's groundout in the fifth made it 12-3.
Caleb Ferguson allowed two runs and five hits in four innings during his second major league start for the Dodgers after being recalled from Triple-A Oklahoma City earlier in the day. The left-hander struck out three and walked two.
Adrian Beltre had an RBI single for the Rangers, and Shin-Soo Choo homered leading off the fifth.
Rangers: SS Elvis Andrus will be the designated hitter and play seven innings in the second game of a rehab assignment with Double-A Frisco on Wednesday.
Dodgers: RHP Walker Buehler went on the 10-day DL with a right rib microfracture, an injury sustained when he was hit by a 108 mph line drive by Colorado's Trevor Story on May 21. ... LHP Clayton Kershaw (lower back strain) threw a bullpen, and a simulated game will occur soon. ''He's reassured me he feels great,'' manager Dave Roberts said. ... LHP Hyun-Jin Ryu (left groin strain) threw a bullpen.
LHP Cole Hamels (3-6, 3.86 ERA) goes for the Rangers in the series finale, having allowed 17 home runs, second-most in the majors. RHP Kenta Maeda (4-4, 3.61) makes his first start since May 29 after being on the DL with a right hip strain. He's never faced Texas.
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